13 rules of Ishmael

Now the Seven Rules of Hillel are of great importance to Nazarenes because:

''They were first penned by Hillel BEFORE Messiah's coming''
''They are used by Messiah and other NT writers.''
''Paul speaks of "rightly dividing the word" and since he was a student of Gamliel (grandson of Hillel) and since he used the seven rules of Hillel, it appears that "rightly dividing" refered at least in part, to the seven rules of Hillel.''

Now the 13 rules of Ishmael were first penned by Ishmael AFTER the first century (though they likely existed long before they were penned). However, they are important to us none the less for two reasons:
''They seem to have some intrinsic value.''
''We must be able follow the reasoning of the Rabbis of the Mishna and the Talmud who often rely o­n these rules.''

(All of the examples I will give o­n the 13 rules of Ishmael are from Rabbinic halakhah and may or may not be valid Nazarene halakhah.)

=== THE THIRTEEN RULES OF ISHMAEL ===

==== [1] (same as 1st rule of Hillel) ====

==== [2] (same as 2nd rule of Hillel) ====

==== [3] (same as 3rd & 4th rules of Hillel) ====

==== [4] (same as 5th rule of Hillel) ====

==== [5] perat ukhelal (particular and general) ====

If the general instances are stated first and are followed by the general catagory, instances other than the particular o­nes mentioned are included. EXAMPLE: Ex. 22:9 "...an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, OR ANY BEAST" beasts other than those specified are included.

==== [6] kelal uferat ukhelal i attah dan ella ke-ein ha-perat (general, particular, general) ====
You may derive o­nly things similar to those specified. EXAMPLE: Dt. 14:26 Other things than those specified in Dt. 14:26 may be purchased, but o­nly if they are food or drink like those specified.

==== [7] kelal she-hu tzarikh liferat uferat she-hu tzarikh li-khelal (The general requires the particular and the particular the general) ====
Specification is provided by taking the general and the particular together, each requiring the other. EXAMPLE: "Sanctify unto Me all the firstborn (masc.)" (Dt. 15:19) with "whatsoever opens the womb" (Ex. 13:2) A firstborn male would have been understood as included in the term "all the firstborn" even if a female had previously been born to that mother. Thus the particular limiting expresion "whatever opens the womb" is stated. But this term would not have excluded o­ne born after a previous c-section birth, hence the general term "all the firstborn" (b.Bek. 19a)

==== [8] davar she-hayah bi-khelal ve-yatza min ha-kelal lelammed lo lelammed al atzmo yatza ella lelammed al hakelal kullo yatzo (if a particular instance of a general rule is singled out for special treatment, whatever is postulated of this instance is to be applied to all the instances embraced by the general rule.) ====
EXAMPLE: "A man, also, or a woman that devines that by a ghost or a familiar spirit, shall surely be put to death; they shall stone them with stones" (Lev. 20:27) Divination by a ghost or a familiar spirit is included in the general rule against witchcraft (Dt. 18:10f). Since the penalty in Lev. 20:27 is stoneing it may be inferred that the same penalty applies to other instasnces within the same general rule. (b.San. 67b)

==== [9] davar she-hayah bi khelal ve-yatza liton to'an echad she-hu khe-inyano yatza lehakel ve-lo lehachmir<br>(when particular instances of a general rule are treated specifically, in details similar to those included in the general rule, then o­nly the relaxations of the general rule and not its restrictions are to be applied in those instances.) ====
EXAMPLE: The law of the boil (Lev. 13:18-21) and the burn (Lev. 13:24-28) are treated specifically even though these are specific instances of the general rule regarding plague spots (Lev. 13:1-17) Therefore the general restrictions regarding the Law of the secod week (Lev. 13:5) and the quick raw flesh (Lev. 13:10 are not applied to them (m.Sifra 1:2)

==== [10] davar she-hayah bi-khelal ve-yatza liton to'an acher she-lo khe-inyano yatza lehakel-lehachmir. (When particular instances of a general rule are treated specifically in details dissimilar from those included in the general rule, then both relaxations and restrictions are to be applied in those instances) ====
EXAMPLE: The details o­n laws of plagues in the hair or beard (Lev. 13:29-37) are dissimilar from those in the general rule of plague spots. Therefore both the relaxation regarding the white hair mentioned in the general rule (Lev. 13:4) and the restriction of the yellow hair mentioned in the particular instance (Lev. 13:30) are applied (m.Sifra 1:3)

==== [11] davar she-hayah bi-khelal ve-yatza lidon ba-davar he-chadash i attah yakhol lehachatziro li khelalo ad she-yachazirennu ha-katav li-khelalo be-ferush. (when a particular instance of a general rule is singled out for completely fresh treatment, the details of the general rule must not be applied to this inststance unless Scripture does so specifically.) ====
EXAMPLE: the guilt offering of the leper requires the placing of the blood o­n the ear, thumb, and toe (Lev. 14:14) Consequently, the laws of the general guilt offering, such as the sprinkling of the blood o­n the alter (Lev. 7:2) would not have applied, were it not for the Torah passage "For as the sin offering is the priest's so is the guilt offereing" (Lev.14:13), i.e. that this is like other guilt offerings (b.Yev. 7a-b)

==== [12] davar ha-lamed me-inyano ve-davar ha-lamed mi-sofo. (The meaning of a passage may be deduced from (a) its context, or (b) from a later reference in the same passage) ====
The first part of this rule is Hillel's seventh rule. EXAMPLE: "thou shall not steal" in Ex. 20:13 must refer to the capitol case of kidnapping, since the other two offenses mentioned with it: "You shall not murder" and "you shall not commit adultry" are both capitol offenses (Mekh., BaChodesh, 8, 5) EXAMPLE: "I put the plague of leporasy in a house of the land of your possesion" (Lev. 14:34), refers o­nly to a house built with stones, timber, and mortar, since these materials are mentioned later in verse 45.

==== [13] shenei khetuvim hamakhchishim zeh et teh ad she-yavo ha-katuv ha-shelishi ve-yakhria beineihem. (two verses contradict o­ne another until a third verse reconciles them.) ====
This is VERY similar to the sixth rule of Hillel.----

Original article written by James Trimm - UNJS, and now with WNAE

The Sages have said:

Does not atonement come through the blood, as it is said: For it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life!

Babylonian Talmud

Babylonian Talmud, Yoma 5a referring to Vayikra (Lev.) 17:11 in the Tanakh